One of the best mind in history. French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
I’ve read his works for 20 hours, and now I share with you his gold ideas!
Influence on Newton’s mathematics. He invented what you could hate at school.
A Cartesian coordinates graph
This idea came to him from thinking about existence of God(it’s very probable). Yea, mathematician idea came from philosophy. He said that we should get information from differen sources. Science is not an art, where you need grown in something one.
(FROM Rules for the Direction of the Mind)
“they erroneously compare the sciences, which entirely consists in the cognitive exercise of the mind, with the arts, which depend upon an exercise and disposition of the body. They see that not all the arts can be acquired by the same man, but that he who restricts himself to one, most readily becomes the best executant, … ”
(from Discourse on the Method)
” the more perfect should be an effect of, and dependence on the less perfect, than that something should proceed from nothing, it was equally impossible that I could hold it from myself: accordingly, it but remained that it had been placed in me by a nature which was in reality more perfect than mine, and which even possessed within itself all the perfections of which I could form any idea; that is to say, in a single word, which was God. ”
“because it is not less repugnant that
the more perfect should be an effect of, and dependence on the less perfect,
than that something should proceed from nothing, it was equally impossible that I could hold it from myself: accordingly, it but remained that it had been placed in me by a nature which was in reality more perfect than mine, and which even possessed within itself all the perfections of which I could form any idea;”
He often been dubbed the father of modern Western philosophy, the thinker whose approach has profoundly changed the course of Western philosophy and set the basis for modernity simply by doubting everything, even own existence. His famous
Cartesian doubt is also known as Cartesian skepticism, methodic doubt, methodological skepticism, Universal Doubt, or hyperbolic doubt.He doubth everything. His existence, his body, mind, everything. Is the essence of real science. Now people repeat mistake of pre Descarties scientists.
(from Discourse on the Method)
“I believe that in this chiefly consisted the secret of the power of such philosophers as in former times were enabled to rise superior to the influence of fortune, and, amid suffering and poverty, enjoy a happiness which their gods might have envied. For, occupied incessantly with the consideration of the limits prescribed to their power by nature,
# they became so entirely convinced that nothing was at their disposal except their own thoughts,
that this conviction was of itself sufficient to prevent their entertaining any desire of other objects; and over their thoughts they acquired a sway so absolute, that they had some ground on this account for esteeming themselves more rich and more powerful, more free and more happy, than other men who, whatever be the favors heaped on them by nature and fortune, if destitute of this philosophy, can never command the realization of all their desires.”
4 rules of Descartes
which he had from analysis of the ancients, the algebra of the moderns and logic
(keep only good and simple from them)
Never to accept anything for true which I did not clearly know to be such;
that is to say, carefully to avoid precipitancy and prejudice, and to comprise nothing more in my judgement than what was presented to my mind so clearly and distinctly as to exclude all ground of doubt.
Divide each of the difficulties under examination into as many parts as possible**, and as might be necessary for its adequate solution.
To conduct my thoughts in such order that, by commencing with objects the simplest and easiest to know, I might ascend by little and little, and, as it were, step by step, to the knowledge of the more complex; assigning in thought a certain order even to those objects which in their own nature do not stand in a relation of antecedence and sequence.
In every case to make enumerations so complete, and reviews so general, that I might be assured that nothing was omitted. MAKE REWIEV of what you have done and make new quastions to solve
HIS CODE OF MORALS(MAXIMS)
I formed a provisory code of morals, composed of three or four maxims, with which I am desirous to make you acquainted.
The first was to obey the laws and customs of my country, adhering firmly to the faith in which, by the grace of God, I had been educated from my childhood and regulating my conduct in every other matter according to the most moderate opinions, and the farthest removed from extremes, which should happen to be adopted in practice with general consent of the most judicious of those among whom I might be living.
Second maxim was to be as firm and resolute in my actions as I was able, and not to adhere less steadfastly to the most doubtful opinions, when once adopted, than if they had been highly certain; imitating in this the example of travelers who, when they have lost their way in a forest, ought not to wander from side to side, far less remain in one place, but proceed constantly towards the same side in as straight a line as possible
Third maxim was to endeavor always to conquer myself rather than fortune, and change my desires rather than the order of the world, and in general, accustom myself to the persuasion that, except our own thoughts, there is nothing absolutely in our power; so that when we have done our best in things external to us, all wherein we fail of success is to be held, as regards us, absolutely impossible.